Citizens of the European Union, other EEA countries (Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein) and Switzerland rightly enter the Schengen area and only need a valid ID card or national passport to cross its borders and stay as long as they wish. The Schengen Agreement was signed on 14 June 1985 by five of the ten EC Member States in the Schengen City, Luxembourg. The Schengen area was created separately from the European Communities, when not all the Member States of the Eu reached a consensus on the abolition of border controls. In December 1996, two non-EU states, Norway and Iceland, signed an association agreement with the countries that signed the Schengen accession agreement. Although this agreement never entered into force, the two countries were part of the Schengen area following similar agreements with the EU.  The Schengen Agreement itself was not signed by non-EU states.  In 2009, Switzerland officially concluded its accession to the Schengen area by adopting an association agreement by referendum in 2005.  MEPs who yesterday celebrated the abolition of Schengen controls have been overtaken by German and French motorists who, as usual, are nibbling the border to increase with cheap Luxembourg petrol and alcohol and less alcoholic cigarettes. Passport stamps are never issued when travelling between Schengen Member States, even though border controls between Schengen Member States are temporarily restored.  Although Cyprus, which joined the EU on 1 May 2004, is legally obliged to join the Schengen area, implementation has been delayed due to the Cyprus dispute.
According to former Cypriot Foreign Minister Giorgos Lillikas, “strict and total control over the Schengen base will create a huge tribulation for the Turkish Cypriots” in northern Cyprus every day and it is not certain that such control is possible before the dispute is resolved.  The British sovereign territories Akrotiri and Dhekelia, a British overseas territory outside the EU, also need “different management and mechanisms”.  Akrotiri and Dhekelia do not have border controls with Cyprus, but their own border control at their airbase. No date has been set since 2018 for the implementation of the Schengen rules by Cyprus.  Cyprus has fewer potential benefits from the implementation of Schengen, since it has no land border with another EU Member State; Air travel or about 12 hours of sea travel for the next EU member. In December 2015, Sweden passed a temporary law allowing the government to require all carriers to verify that their passengers are carrying valid photo identification. The new law came into force on December 21, 2015 and applies until December 21, 2018.  The government has decided that the new rules will apply from January 4, 2016 to July 4, 2016. The new law has resulted in a mandatory change in trains and border controls at Copenhagen Airport for travellers between Copenhagen and Sweden, with a reduction in the frequency of journeys.  Sweden earlier (15 November 2015) introduced border controls from Denmark, which have not been able to stop the influx of migrants, as they have the right to apply for asylum once on its territory.